Isadora Youse
I am not only a pacifist but a militant pacifist. I am willing to fight for peace.
Bunions Causes Symptoms And Cures

Overview
Bunions
A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a painful deformity that develops at the base of the big toe. Bunions are caused when the big toe pushes and bends inward towards the other toes. This displaces the bones of the joint, causing it to protrude in a way that looks like a large growth. Bunions develop due to a variety of factors. Some people inherit feet that are more susceptible due to their shape and structure, having flat feet for instance. But bunions can be made worse by the wrong shoe, or by carrying extra weight or prolonged periods of standing or walking.

Causes
Although bunions tend to run in families, it is the foot type that is passed down-not the bunion. Parents who suffer from poor foot mechanics can pass their problematic foot type on to their children, who in turn are prone to developing bunions. The abnormal functioning caused by this faulty foot development can lead to pressure being exerted on and within the foot, often resulting in bone and joint deformities such as bunions and hammertoes.
SymptomsThe pain from a bunion is felt around the MTP joint of the big toe. People with bunions often complain of pain when they when they stand or walk for long periods of time. High heeled shoes or shoes with a small toe area can make bunions feel and look worse. As a result of the deformity the big toe can lose some of its range of motion or become stiff. Sometimes both feet are affected.

Diagnosis
Clinical findings are usually specific. Acute circumferential intense pain, warmth, swelling, and redness suggest gouty arthritis (see Gout) or infectious arthritis (see Acute Infectious Arthritis), sometimes mandating examination of synovial fluid. If multiple joints are affected, gout or another systemic rheumatic disease should be considered. If clinical diagnosis of osteoarthritic synovitis is equivocal, x-rays are taken. Suggestive findings include joint space narrowing and bony spurs extending from the metatarsal head or sometimes from the base of the proximal phalanx. Periarticular erosions (Martel sign) seen on imaging studies suggest gout.

Non Surgical Treatment
You can buy orthotics over the counter from pharmacies, or they can be custom-made by a podiatrist to fit your feet. Whether you need to buy an over-the-counter orthotic or have one specially made will depend on your individual circumstances and the severity of your bunion. You can also use special bunion splints, worn over the top of your foot and your big toe to help straighten its alignment. Splints are available for both daytime and night-time use. However, there's little evidence that splints are effective. Toe spacers are also available, which can help reduce the pain caused by bunions. However, toe spacers or orthotics may be of limited use because they often compete with the bunion for the already limited space in the shoe. If your toe joint is painful and swollen, applying an ice pack to the affected area several times a day can help to relieve the pain and inflammation. Never apply ice directly to your skin. Wrap it in a cloth or tea towel. A bag of frozen vegetables makes a good ice pack. It's recommended that you wear flat or low-heeled, wide-fitting shoes if you have a bunion. Shoes made from soft leather are ideal because they'll relieve any pressure on the bunion. Avoid narrow or slip-on shoes. High heels can also make your bunion worse by putting excessive pressure on your toes.
Bunion Pain

Surgical Treatment
Several surgical procedures are available to the podiatric physician The surgery will remove the bony enlargement, restore the normal alignment of the toe joint, and relieve pain.A simple bunionectomy, in which only the bony prominence is removed, may be used for the less severe deformity. Severe bunions may require a more involved procedure, which includes cutting the bone and realigning the joint. Recuperation takes time, and swelling and some discomfort are common for several weeks following surgery. Pain, however, is easily managed with medications prescribed by your podiatric physician.